Inwales Are In

I glued the inwales in a couple of weeks ago. I haven’t updated the blog because I’ve been going full-tilt on the canoe every chance I get, and I’ve been having some family fun camping in BC!

A couple of notes about the inwales:
1. I used my belt sander as a substitute for planing the final shape of the gunwale planks before installing. It was fast and gave a nice flat surface
2. One inwale I forgot to roughen up and sand the epoxy surface to which it was glued. Hopefully it won’t fail…
3. As usual, my craftsmanship in finishing details was not perfect, shaping the inwales as they meet in the stems left some gaps. Overall it wasn’t too bad. At least I didn’t cut an inwale too short and have to start over again.

And now some pictures…

cutting a slot
Another famous sluggo jigging setup. I borrowed a drill press to bore some holes/slots into the gunwales. I added 4 slots near midship instead of scuppering. Drill presses are really handy.

ready for glue
Masked, sanded and ready for glue.

One of my joints at the stem.

One in, one to go.
One inwale in, one glued up.

First Seat Frame Is Glued

I managed to get the first seat joined and glued last night. I opted to try and do mortise and tenon joints. I was a bit reluctant to do this because I’m not much of a craftsman but the other options were much more appetizing. I thought a simple lap joint might not be as nice and I didn’t want monkey around with holes and dowels. The dowels would be a good way to go if I had a drill press (mmmm, drill press). Anyways, I sucked it up, bought a 1/4″ chisel, put my dado blade on the table saw and went for it. I sharpened the chisel with my Norton water stones and I must say that I got what I paid for when I bought the $10 chisel from Rona. The blade couldn’t hold a good edge very well at all. No worries though, it still works.

First I practiced and did a test mortise on some scrap wood. Using the width of the chisel as the width of the mortise, I then set the height on the dado blade to make a matching tenon. It only took a few minutes to cut the four tenons. It took around 2 hours to cut all four mortises and epoxy it all together. My work wasn’t perfect but I hope that after sanding the joints will look good. One change for the next seat is that I should put a layer of epoxy on the tenon before coating it with thickened epoxy for gluing (white microfibres as the thickener).

Having never used mortise and tenons before, I’m not sure how “right” my joints were. The tenons slid in easily but I don’t think there was any slop, especially after the seat frame is assembled.

Photos of my finished gunwale scarfs

I finally finished scarfing the gunwales. My second attempt went very well, but one joint got a piece of dirt or debris in it. Using weights and having the planks side by side, it was very difficult to see if the joint was good. The one scarf therefore didn’t have a tight fit and the joint was barely glued. I pulled it apart, sanded the surfaces flat, and glued it again.

Scarfing the Gunwales

This past week’s goal was to scarf the gunwales. I cut the scarfs using a sled based on the one shown here.

Here is a pic of my sled, it is essentially the same as the one in the above link but not as “nice.”

I first tried to epoxy the scarfed pieces together using epoxy thickened with some fine sawdust from my table saw. I placed a brick over the 4 joints and called it a night. The next morning most of the joints and shifted a bit. I decided that 1 brick for all 4 boards at once was not the way to go, and I also decided against using thickened epoxy. Since the scarfs were cut quite accurate, the joints fit together nice and tight and I don’t need any “thickeners” in the joint. I cut through the epoxied joints with a hand saw, trimmed new scarfs with the table saw, and laid everything out again. This time I carefully placed 1 brick per joint. I’m hoping it all works out, I should know by later tonight.

Fiberglassing the Interior of the Canoe

The past couple of days I finished fiberglassing the inside of the hull of the canoe. It was really difficult but I also learned a lot. I don’t have any photos yet but I’ll post them in a day or two.

Because my fiberglass cloth is only 40″ wide, I can’t use a single piece to cover the inside. That’s ok because I wanted to lay the cloth across the width of the hull. Several pieces are laid across, overlapping by 4″ or 5″. Some people propose that these overlaps acts as stiffeners. I’m not sure about that, but it couldn’t hurt. I thought using several smaller pieces would make the work less cumbersome than 1 big piece. More on that later.

It took 5 pieces to cover the length of the hull. At the stems I cut down the middle so I don’t have to worry about wrapping the cloth over or around the stem. I used plastic clothesline clips to hold the cloth to the hull and I used a brush to flatten and even out the cloth. The plan was to use a roller and squeegee to spread the epoxy.

As soon as I started I encountered some problems. My epoxy had been sitting for a while and consequently had partially chrystallized. I heated up the epoxy and that got things flowing again. After the first batch of epoxy was put on the boat though, the resin pump jammed. I had to work fast to get it going again because I couldn’t let the epoxy on the hull kick, or I would have even more problems. I stayed calm though (I tend to get excited with things like this) and this became a common theme for the next 2hrs. Stay calm, it’ll all work out…

I had a few problems with keeping the cloth down on the hull but this was anticipated since the stems make things difficult. My first method for spreading epoxy was pouring it on the bottom and spreading with the squeegee. This worked well until I hit the curve of the bulge. I then started using a roller which was okay. However, a significant problem started happening. I could not for the life of me get the cloth to lie flat on the hull. Large pockets of cloth were lifting up. I was trying to move the wrinkles with a squeegee, roller and my hand. I also started to use a brush near the end. After a long, long struggle on the second piece I had to lift the wet cloth off of the wood and try to set it back down again. Things were getting really tense because the epoxy was going to be kicking soon. I managed to get the cloth in place but still had a few big pockets. I finally resorted to using my utility knife and cut slits in the pockets to get them lie flat.

After 2.5hrs of struggle I was finished for the night. Luckily I could stop early because I was using separate pieces of cloth. I got two pieces down, and hoped to finish the other 3 the next night.

For the next night I decided to take a slightly different tact. I decided to use brushes, and I made sure to spend a lot of prep time getting the cloth down flat on the hull as close to perfect as possible before starting with the epoxy. I thought I had been careful with laying down the cloth the first time, but now I was going to try and do an even better job. I bought some disposable natural bristle brushes from Lee Valley (cheap and good). Trying to clean epoxy brushes while mixing epoxy, spreading epoxy and squeegeeing epoxy is all but impossible. I’m not even sure that the chemicals used to properly clean a brush is worth it – vinegar works great for cleaning epoxy from skin and other things but I find that acetone is needed for a good brush cleaning. What’s worse, using acetone and re-using the brush, or using nothing and throwing the brush away?

I spent 45min getting the rest of the cloth in place as best I could. I then mixed my first batch of epoxy, poured it in the boat and slowly and carefully spread it with the brush. The brush allowed for a lot more control: the cloth will move around and the brush is very accurate in controlling the movement. Using a roller gives another problem in that it can lift the cloth up off the wood as the cloth sticks to the roller as it turns. The brush doesn’t have this problem.

Much to my pleasure, I didn’t really have any problems with the last three pieces of cloth. My work wasn’t perfect but it was faster and better than the previous night. As well, I didn’t need to slit any bubbles!

There are a few things left for me to do on the inside. I am going to sand down any bits of cloth rising up. As well, some resin chunks were in the epoxy from the first night so these will be sanded too. Then I will patch the areas with slits and give a thin coat of epoxy over the rest of the hull. I think it won’t take more than an hour.

Finished Scraping The Hull

I finished scraping the inside of the hull this past weekend. I enjoyed this part of the build, as it didn’t involve any epoxy or electric power tools (ie ROS). Using the curved cabinet scraper I was able to not only remove glue from the inside surface, but also fair out any uneven strips. I’ll only have to do a quick sand on the inside before it’s ready for fiberglassing.

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